ftir (8)


The use of pork and porcine ingredients is banned in halal and kosher foods. This review by Indonesian researchers examines the various methods from DNA analysis, FTIR spectroscopic analysis, chromatography to electronic nose, that have been used to detect porcine DNA, pork, pork gelatine, and lard in meat products.

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Garlic is widely used in cooking all over the world. Researchers at Queens University Belfast have verified whether NIR (near infrared) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy with chemometric analysis can detect garlic mixed with possible adulterants. Authentic and adulterated garlic (with talc, maltodextrin, corn starch, cornflour, peanut butter powder, sodium caseinate, potato starch, rice flour, cassava and white maize meal) samples were prepared at 20–90% levels, and NIR and FTIR spectra of the samples obtained. Principal component analysis (PCA) models were created to establish if there was separation of garlic from the adulterants.Orthogonal partial least squares – discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were then developed to be able to detect and classify the levels of adulteration correctly using both NIR and FTIR.

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Vanilla is a high value flavouring used in ice cream, desserts and confectionery, and mainly grown in Madagascar. Synthetic vanillin and biovanillin (produced by fermentation) are cheaper. By using SIRA (stable isotope ratio analysis) to look at the δ13C, it is possible to distinguish between the three types of vanilla flavouring. The method was tested on market samples of yoghurt and ic cream. Also FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectoscopy with chemometric analysis was calibrated with authentic samples of black pepper so that it was possible to detect the adulteration of ground black pepper with black pepper husk and defatted spent material. The research was undertaken as a Ph.D registered at the Technical University of Denmark, but carried out at the Danish National Food Institute and IGFS - Queens University Belfast.  

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6343007889?profile=RESIZE_400xThe illegal practice of adding sucrose to milk has increased in recent years. Sucrose is used as an adulterant of reconstituted milk to increase the total solids content. This research developed the use of  FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate chemometric modelling for the differentiation and quantification of sucrose in cow milk. Trial samples of sucrose adulterated milk from 0.5 - 7.5% were prepared and analysed by FTIR. Chemometric analysis was performed on the spectra, and partial least squares regression (PLS-R) showed the best prediction of adulteration with a detection level of 0.5% w/v sucrose adulteration. The method is simple, non-destructive, quick and needs minimal samples preparation. 

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Polish researchers have published a paper on the development of rapid, simple, and non-destructive analytical procedure for discrimination and authentication of whiskies originating from Scotland, Ireland and USA  as well as time of maturation (two, three, six and twelve years). Combination of data from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with statistical analysis was used to construct eight discriminant models. The models obtained permitted whiskies from Scotland, Ireland, and USA to be distinguished from each other, and 2 and 3 years old beverages from 6 and 12 years old whiskies. Results show that 100% of samples were correctly classified in models discriminating American and Scottish whiskies or 2-year-old and 6-year-old American whiskies. American whiskies were classified correctly in all models, which may suggest its considerable chemical difference compared to whisky produced in Scotland or Ireland. 

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Researchers at Rutgers University, NJ, have developed a rapid method using a portable FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer to distinguish between synthesised Omega-3 ethyl esters and natural unprocessed fish oil. Using a commercial liquid transmission accessory, small samples of fish oil at three thicknesses (25,50 and 100 microns) permit the differentiation by focussing on different vibrational bands. A survey of fish oil capsules sold on the US market found about 80% of the products tested that are marketed as fish oil, contain oil that has been chemically altered from natural fish oil.

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The Danish Consumer Organisation, Forbrugerrådet Tænk, collected 10 samples of oregano from supermarkets and stores around Copenhagen during the summer. The samples were sent for analysis by FTIR and chemometric modelling followed by mass spectrometry for confirmation. Three of the samples had only 50% oregano, and a fourth 70% oregano, the remainder was dried plant material from olive leaves and myrtle. 

Read the article at: Danish oregano tests

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Researchers applying a multi-step approach using HPLC, UV–Vis, FT-IR and NMR analyses, uncovered a new type of adulteration of a commercial product labelled as “saffron”, and sold packed in powder form in a major consuming country.  Applying the four methods and NMR data from in-house databases, they uncovered a  “tailor-made” case of 100% substitution of saffron by a mixture of exogenous chemical compounds in such a way that the commercial product would approximately mimic not only the appearance of saffron but also its UV–Vis spectrum and specific absorbance values. The findings indicated a sophisticated practice, including total substitution of saffron constituents by tartrazine and sunset yellow along with propane-1,2-diol, propan-2-ol and acylglycerols, probably as emulsifier agents. 

Read the abstract at: Multi-step approach uncovers saffron fraud

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