2H NMR spectroscopy has been the official method to detect sugar addition and water to wine for many decades. Recently, 1H NMR spectroscopy, a simpler and faster method (in terms of sample preparation), has gathered more and more attention in wine analysis, even though it lacks official recognition. This technique makes targeted quantitative determination of wine ingredients and non-targeted detection of the metabolomic fingerprint of a wine sample possible. This review summarises the possibilities and limitations of 1H NMR spectroscopy in analytical wine authentication.
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