There has been neither analytical methods nor specific parameters to define milk freshness, which is an important consumer and quality issue. This study identified 8 marker molecules as indicators of milk aging, using liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) followed by chemometric analysis. Thirty high-quality pasteurised liquid milk samples were collected directly from a production site over a 6 week period and analysed immediately, and after storage at 2 to 8°C for 7 days to determine the markers and establish the model. The markers were then validated by challenging the model with a set of 10 milk samples, not previously analysed, and were able to clearly distinguish between the fresh pasteurised milk samples (0 days) and the stored samples (7 days).
The assessment of durum wheat geographical origin is an important and emerging challenge, due to the added value that a claim of origin could provide to the raw material itself, and subsequently to the final products (i.e. pasta). As an alternative to the use of stable isotopes and trace elements to determine geographic origin, Italian researchers used non-targeted high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) to select chemical markers related to the geographical origin of durum wheat. Durum wheat samples from the 2016 wheat harvest were used to set up the model and to select the markers, while samples from the 2018 harvest were used for model and metabolomic markers validation. Different geographies across different continents were used in the sample set, so that it is now possible to discriminate between Italian, European and Non-European durum wheat samples.
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