added water (5)

Review of the Adulteration of Cow Milk


The common adulterants used in cow milk are water, starch, flour, urea, formalin, sodium hydroxide and cane sugar. Extension of milk with added water is the most common. These adulterants have effect on the nutritional quality of cow milk by decreasing the concentration of ingredients found and wholesomeness of the milk. This review examines the occurence of adulteration, as well as the methods to detect it.

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10949009861?profile=RESIZE_400xAquacultured prawns were the second highest export of Bangladesh, but have now been renegated to seventh place. In the period from July to December 2022, 1,660kg of prawned were seized and destroyed by authorities because they were found to have been injected by a jelly-like substance to increase the water content. The injection was carried out after harvest, and by some traders in the supply chain. Exporters are worried that these incidents may reduce exports even more.

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8062238667?profile=RESIZE_400xThis study has determined the isotopic ratios, i.e. of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, of Slovenian milk and its major constituents: water, casein, and lactose. In addition, the oxygen isotope ratios of cow, sheep, and goat’s milk were compared. Oxygen isotope ratios in milk show seasonal variability, and are also 18O enriched in relation to animal drinking water. The δ18O water values were higher in sheep and goat’s milk when compared to cow milk, reflecting the isotopic composition of the drinking water source, and the effect of differences in the animal’s thermoregulatory physiologies. The relationship between δ18O milk and δ18O lactose is an indication that even lower amounts (>7%) of added water to milk, can be determined. This approach could be a possible confirmatory method to determining added water in milk to the freezing point method.

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In the recent survey, conducted by the Food and Drug Administration Department of India under the milk survey of Food Safety and Standard Authority, the apex regulatory body to ensure food standards and quality in the country, 25 per cent of milk samples failed the quality check.

These samples were not only taken from dairies but also from milk packets.

“Under the survey, conducted by the FSSAI across the nation, we have collected 45 samples from various dairies and packaging units of the city. Over 10 samples have failed to clear the quality test including four contain sodium bicarbonate,” senior food safety officer Manish Swami said.

He said that samples of Mahindra Saboro, the packaged milk launched by Mahindra and Mahindra, were also failed as they contain sodium bicarbonate. “Samples of Saboro were also failed and many of the samples contain more water. Milk samples were also found to contain a neutraliser (sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydroxide) to increase the shelf life of milk. Many samples had fat content lower than what was prescribed by the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (PFA),” he added.

However, samples taken from rural areas were found even better than the set standards in terms of fat content and quality. Swami said that they would serve notices to the adulterators and also send our report to the FSSAI.

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